Exposure to appropriately designed weight-bearing exercise of moderate- to high-load intensity with appropriate technical competency is an osteogenic stimulus 60,61,, Such training can result in large increases in bone mass and density 5,10,17,46, , and research has suggested that this adaptive response is most sensitive during the prepubertal years 8. Due to women possessing a greater risk of osteoporosis in later life 58 and that strength training has previously been deemed to offer the potential of reducing osteoporotic fractures in older women 79 , the importance of strength training for women at all stages of development should not be underestimated.
Upon the onset of the adolescent growth spurt, clear maturational differences are apparent for nearly all components of fitness, with men making greater improvements in most physical qualities, with the exception of flexibility 14, Typically, the onset of the adolescent growth spurt occurs around 2 years earlier in girls about 10 years of age than in boys approximately 12 years of age 14 , and in the majority of instances, girls experience PHV at an earlier age than boys 12 years versus 14 years Despite an earlier attainment of PHV in girls, the magnitude of the growth spurt is greater in boys During the adolescent spurt, female athletes will undergo sex-specific physiological processes that may affect performance: increased fat mass, differential rates of development of neuromuscular strength, and height and weight; commencement of menstrual cycle, increased joint laxity, increased knee valgus angle; and increased reliance on quadriceps-dominant landing strategies, all of which have been associated with an increased risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury 2,43,51,52,72,75,86, Consequently, the YPD model suggests that training strategies designed to reduce the risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries, such as plyometrics, core strengthening, strength training, and balance and perturbation training 74 , should be implemented within the strength and conditioning program of female athletes and maintained into adulthood.
Because of the highly individual timing of maturation , it is imperative that any LTAD model contains a degree of flexibility An early maturing child has previously been defined as a girl or boy who starts their adolescent growth spurt approximately 1. For example, if a child is routinely monitored for stature and body mass every 3—6 months throughout childhood, growth rates, percentage of adult height, and predictions of age from PHV can be calculated Using these measurements, the maturational status of a child can be approximated, thus providing a more robust estimate of their biological age.
In relation to the YPD model, if a child is deemed to be an early maturer, then the components of the model will need to be moved to the left, thus enabling the child to commence more advanced training techniques at an earlier chronologic age. In contrast, a strength and conditioning coach must allow the components of the YPD model to be moved to the right for a child who is deemed a late maturer, thereby introducing them to more advanced training at a later chronologic age, when they are physiologically ready to cope with the increased training stimulus. In either of these instances, although training prescription will vary according to chronological age, it should allow greater consistency and more accuracy in terms of the child's biological age.
Irrespective of chronological or biological age, a strength and conditioning coach must give thought to the training age of any athlete that they start working with. Training age can be defined as the number of years an athlete has been participating in formalized training and is an important factor to consider when designing long-term athletic development programs.
Developing Agility and Quickness
Such an approach is particularly pertinent when a strength and conditioning coach begins to work with an athlete who is approaching adulthood that has missed the initial stages of the YPD model. In such an instance, the athletes should begin with early development of FMS and muscular strength before embarking on the training content that is commensurate with their chronological age.
Conversely, should a strength and conditioning coach begin working with an early maturing year-old boy who can display exceptional strength, speed, and power while maintaining the requisite technical competency, then they should not be restricted to the introductory training methods more akin to his chronological age. This concept has previously been discussed in relation to both plyometric 63 and weightlifting 65 development models.
Well-being has been defined as a positive and sustainable state that allows individuals, groups, or nations to thrive and flourish The philosophy of the YPD model is that it permits individualization, is athlete centered, and promotes the development of the child over performance outcomes. This may sacrifice short-term performance success but should maximize the opportunity to foster a sense of well-being and provide long-term gains. This philosophy will help the child to appreciate the benefits of training and develop intrinsic motivation for participating in training, which is a strong predictor of well-being 95 and is associated with positive behaviors Additionally, provided the coach can deliver the content of the model in a positive manner the child should recognize the gains they are achieving e.
This will increase the likelihood of the child being able to persist in the face of adversity and to sustain continued interest in sport 4, The YPD model advocates the development of FMS from a young age, which are associated with physical and psychologic health benefits in children Furthermore, the progression provided throughout the YPD model will enable the children to experience continued mastery of new tasks throughout their developmental years.
Task mastery is associated with increased enjoyment, perceived competence, satisfaction, and beliefs that effort causes success 81,, Such positive experiences should also provide valuable and highly transferable life skills The continued and overlapping development of a number of fitness components in the YPD model should also provide the strength and conditioning coach with the ability to develop training programs containing a high degree of variation, something that has been suggested to be important in maintaining the interest of and promoting the well-being of child athletes It is important to realize that the success of any long-term development program will be dependent largely on the level of education and quality of instruction received by the athlete from the responsible coach Within the literature, cases of training-induced injury in children and adolescents are reported only in instances where a young athlete has been exposed to excessive, unfamiliar, and poorly prescribed training, which in both cases have led to exertional rhabdomyolysis and hospitalization 27, Research suggests that outside these isolated cases, most incidences of resistance training-related injuries tend to be accidental in nature, with the number of accidental injuries decreasing with age However, to minimize the chances of such isolated instances occurring, it is imperative that those coaches who actively coach young athletes possess the appropriate credentials.
First, a coach must hold a relevant strength and conditioning qualification e. Second, a coach must have a sound underpinning knowledge of pediatric exercise science, ideally at an undergraduate or postgraduate level. Finally, a coach should have a strong pedagogical background to ensure they have an appreciation of the different styles of communication and interaction that they will need to adopt with athletes, who might range from early prepubescent to late adolescent.
Satisfaction of these criteria will hopefully ensure that young athlete development models are delivered in a safe and effective manner, underpinned by appropriate individual program design inclusive of exercise selection and progressions, volume loads, rest, and recovery , realistic goal setting, and a coaching philosophy that is tailored toward the holistic development of the young athlete. The present article has provided a sound rationale for the YPD model. This approach to the development of young athletes appears to be more realistic in terms of acknowledging that most fitness components are trainable throughout childhood.
Central to the YPD model is that during prepubescence, strength, FMS, speed, and agility should be the main physical qualities targeted and that adaptive responses to the appropriate training methods will be neural in nature. Once the child reaches adolescence, additional components SSS, power, and hypertrophy become more important owing to the increased androgenic internal environment associated with this stage of development.
The need for individualization of the model should not be underestimated when dealing with athletes of different sex, maturity status, and training history.
Crucially, appropriately qualified personnel should always be responsible for the implementation of the YPD model, to ensure the holistic development of children and adolescents. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent.
Pin on Books Wishlist
Advanced Search. Toggle navigation. Subscribe Register Login. Your Name: optional. Your Email:. Colleague's Email:. Separate multiple e-mails with a ;. Send a copy to your email. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try after some time. Back to Top Article Outline. Figure 1. Figure 2. Aagaard P. Training-induced changes in neural function.
Sports Med 61—67, Cited Here Arendt E, Dick R. Knee injury patterns among men and women in collegiate basketball and soccer: NCAA data and review of the literature. Am J Sports Med —, PubMed CrossRef. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people. Sports Med —, Participant development in sport: An academic review. Sports Coach UK 4: 1—, Growth, physical activity and bone mineral acquisition. In: Exercise and Sports Science Review. American College of Sports Medicine Series. Holloszy JO, ed. Accessed July13, Balyi I, Hamilton A.
Bass SL. The prepubertal years—A unique opportune stage of growth when the skeleton is most responsive to exercise? Sports Med 73—78, The differing tempo of growth in bone size, mass and density in girls is region-specific. J Clin Invest —, Bass SL, Myburg K. The effect of exercise on peak bone mass and bone strength. In: Sports Endocrinology. Warren M, Constantini N, eds. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position paper: Resistance training in children and adolescents. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab —, Effects of strength training on motor performance skills in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.
Pediatr Exerc Sci —, Effects of resistance training in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics —, Growth and biological maturation : Relevance to athletic performance. In: The Child and Adolescent Athlete. Bar-Or O, ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing, Growth and physical performance relative to the timing of the adolescent spurt.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev —, Adolescent Growth and Motor Performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, Effects of resistance training on bone mineral content and density in adolescent females. Can J Physiol Pharmacol —, Bloom BS. Developing Talent in Young People. Boisseau N, Delamarche P. Metabolic and hormonal responses to exercise in children and adolescents. Bompa TO. Total Training for Young Champions. Borms J. The child and exercise: An overview.
J Sports Sci 4: 4—20, Age changes in motor skills during childhood and adolescence. Talent development in adolescent team sports: A review. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 5: —, Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biol Psychol —, Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children's motor abilities. Scand J Med Sci Sports —, Children with low muscle strength are at an increased risk of fracture with exposure to exercise.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact —, Clarkson PM. Case report of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a year-old boy. Med Sci Sports Exerc —, Exertional rhabdomyolysis in an adolescent athlete during preseason conditioning: A perfect storm. J Strength Cond Res —, Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children.
- Philosophy of Ecology (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, Volume 11)!
- Digital Synthesizers and Transmitters for Software Radio.
- BOOK REVIEW: Developing the Core.
- Developing Power.
- NSCA's Essentials of Training Special Populations [Hardcover]?
- Advances in Non-Commutative Ring Theory: Proceedings of the Twelfth George H. Hudson Symposium Held at Plattsburgh, USA, April 23–25, 1981.
- Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials: The Critical Quantitative Methods and Tools in Finance.
Annual age-grouping and athlete development: A meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport. View Full Text PubMed. Ten-year secular changes in muscular fitness in English children. Acta Paediatr e—e, Cote J. The influence of the family in the development of talent in sport. Sport Psychol —, Enhancing youth development through sport.
World Leisure J 38—49, De Ste Croix M. Advances in paediatric strength assessment: Changing our perspective on strength development. J Sports Sci Med 6: —, Implementing intervention movement programs for kindergarten children. J Early Child Res 4: 5—18, The effects of sports participation on young adolescents' emotional wellbeing. Adolescence —, Drabik J. Effects of integrative neuromuscular training on fitness performance in children. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Effects of different resistance training protocols on upper-body strength and endurance development in children. Faigenbaum A, Mediate P. Medicine ball for all: A novel program that enhances physical fitness in school-age youths. J Phys Educ Recreation Dance 25—30, Resistance training among young athletes: Safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects. Br J Sports Med 56—63, Fischer DV. Neuromuscular training to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete.
Strength Cond J 44—54, View Full Text CrossRef. The long-term athlete development model: Physiological evidence and application. J Sports Sci —, Neuroendocrine-immune interactions and responses to exercise. Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res —, Growth of early and late maturers.
Ann Hum Biol —, Effects and mechanisms of strength training in children. Int J Sports Med —, Height and height velocity in early, average and late maturers followed to the age of A prospective longitudinal study of Swedish urban children from birth to adulthood. Ann Hum Biol 47—56, Harrison AJ, Gaffney S. Motor development and gender effects on SSC performance. J Sci Med Sport 4: —, Decrease in neuromuscular control about the knee with maturation in female athletes.
J Bone Joint Surg Am —, Effects of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk: A systematic review. Maximal strength training improves work economy in trained female cross-country skiers. Introduction: Why do we need a science of well-being? Isaacs LD. Comparison of the vertec and just jump systems for measuring height of vertical jump by young children. Percept Mot Skills —, Jeffreys I.
Motor learning—Applications for agility, part 1. Strength Cond J 72—76, The contribution of biological maturation to the strength and motor fitness of children. Sex differences in peak adult bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 5: —, Kirk D. Physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation: The importance of early learning experiences. Eur Phys Edu Rev —, Lanyon LE. Functional strain in bone tissue as the objective and controlling stimulus for adaptive bone remodeling. J Biomech —, Static versus dynamic loads as an influence on bone remodeling. United Kingdom Strength and Conditioning Association position statement on youth resistance training.
Prof Strength Cond J In press. The natural development and trainability of plyometric ability during childhood. Strength Cond J 23—32, Effects of 4-weeks plyometric training on reactive strength index and leg stiffness in male youths. J Strength Cond Res , in press. DOI: Long-term athletic development and its application to youth weightlifting. Strength Cond J , in press. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents.
Malina RM. Growth, maturation and development: Applications to young athletes and in particular to divers. Growth, Maturation , and Physical Activity. Eight weeks of resistance training can significantly alter body composition in children who are overweight or obese. J Strength Cond Res 80—85, An assessment of maturity from anthropometric measurements.
- Analytical Solutions of Geohydrological Problems;
- Register for a free account.
- The Guhyagarbha Tantra : Secret Essence Definitive Nature Just As It Is.
- Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism.
- Shop by category;
Miyaguchi K, Demura S. Relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle eccentric maximum strength. Risk factors for lower extremity injury: A review of the literature. Br J Sports Med 13—29, When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sport-related injuries and enhance health in youth.
Curr Sports Med Rep —, Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview Most competitive sports require rapid whole-body movements in which athletes need to accelerate, decelerate, and change direction in response to game situations.
He lives in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Show More. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Developing Change of Direction Speed Chapter 2. Factors Determining Quickness Chapter 3. Age and Sex Considerations Chapter 5. Change of Direction Speed Drills Chapter 7. Quickness Drills Chapter 8. Agility and Quickness Program Design Chapter 9. Sport-Specific Agility and Quickness Training. Interviews Athletes and professionals working with athletes, including strength and conditioning coaches, personal trainers, and sport coaches. Average Review. Write a Review.
Exercise Science & Sport Management
Bowling Execution - 2nd Edition. The sport's definitive work, from the game's master instructor. In Bowling Execution, legend and PBA Hall of Fame coach John Jowdy shares his expertise on every aspect of the sport, from developing skills to refining techniques for improved consistency. View Product.
Bowling Psychology. Coaching Youth Baseball the Ripken Way. Coaching young players, developing their skills, and cultivating a love for the sport may be Coaching young players, developing their skills, and cultivating a love for the sport may be the most rewarding experience baseball can offer. Cal and Bill Ripken understand this like few others. From their father, Cal Sr. Complete Cheerleading. Fire up the fans, inspire the team, and win cheer competitions with the help of Fire up the fans, inspire the team, and win cheer competitions with the help of Complete Cheerleading!
This guide is your all-in-one source for mastering the increasingly challenging individual and team techniques of cheering. Packed with jumps, stunts, tosses, and