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Exposure to appropriately designed weight-bearing exercise of moderate- to high-load intensity with appropriate technical competency is an osteogenic stimulus 60,61,, Such training can result in large increases in bone mass and density 5,10,17,46, , and research has suggested that this adaptive response is most sensitive during the prepubertal years 8. Due to women possessing a greater risk of osteoporosis in later life 58 and that strength training has previously been deemed to offer the potential of reducing osteoporotic fractures in older women 79 , the importance of strength training for women at all stages of development should not be underestimated.

Upon the onset of the adolescent growth spurt, clear maturational differences are apparent for nearly all components of fitness, with men making greater improvements in most physical qualities, with the exception of flexibility 14, Typically, the onset of the adolescent growth spurt occurs around 2 years earlier in girls about 10 years of age than in boys approximately 12 years of age 14 , and in the majority of instances, girls experience PHV at an earlier age than boys 12 years versus 14 years Despite an earlier attainment of PHV in girls, the magnitude of the growth spurt is greater in boys During the adolescent spurt, female athletes will undergo sex-specific physiological processes that may affect performance: increased fat mass, differential rates of development of neuromuscular strength, and height and weight; commencement of menstrual cycle, increased joint laxity, increased knee valgus angle; and increased reliance on quadriceps-dominant landing strategies, all of which have been associated with an increased risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury 2,43,51,52,72,75,86, Consequently, the YPD model suggests that training strategies designed to reduce the risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries, such as plyometrics, core strengthening, strength training, and balance and perturbation training 74 , should be implemented within the strength and conditioning program of female athletes and maintained into adulthood.

Because of the highly individual timing of maturation , it is imperative that any LTAD model contains a degree of flexibility An early maturing child has previously been defined as a girl or boy who starts their adolescent growth spurt approximately 1. For example, if a child is routinely monitored for stature and body mass every 3—6 months throughout childhood, growth rates, percentage of adult height, and predictions of age from PHV can be calculated Using these measurements, the maturational status of a child can be approximated, thus providing a more robust estimate of their biological age.

In relation to the YPD model, if a child is deemed to be an early maturer, then the components of the model will need to be moved to the left, thus enabling the child to commence more advanced training techniques at an earlier chronologic age. In contrast, a strength and conditioning coach must allow the components of the YPD model to be moved to the right for a child who is deemed a late maturer, thereby introducing them to more advanced training at a later chronologic age, when they are physiologically ready to cope with the increased training stimulus. In either of these instances, although training prescription will vary according to chronological age, it should allow greater consistency and more accuracy in terms of the child's biological age.

Irrespective of chronological or biological age, a strength and conditioning coach must give thought to the training age of any athlete that they start working with. Training age can be defined as the number of years an athlete has been participating in formalized training and is an important factor to consider when designing long-term athletic development programs.

Developing Agility and Quickness

Such an approach is particularly pertinent when a strength and conditioning coach begins to work with an athlete who is approaching adulthood that has missed the initial stages of the YPD model. In such an instance, the athletes should begin with early development of FMS and muscular strength before embarking on the training content that is commensurate with their chronological age.

Conversely, should a strength and conditioning coach begin working with an early maturing year-old boy who can display exceptional strength, speed, and power while maintaining the requisite technical competency, then they should not be restricted to the introductory training methods more akin to his chronological age. This concept has previously been discussed in relation to both plyometric 63 and weightlifting 65 development models.

Well-being has been defined as a positive and sustainable state that allows individuals, groups, or nations to thrive and flourish The philosophy of the YPD model is that it permits individualization, is athlete centered, and promotes the development of the child over performance outcomes. This may sacrifice short-term performance success but should maximize the opportunity to foster a sense of well-being and provide long-term gains. This philosophy will help the child to appreciate the benefits of training and develop intrinsic motivation for participating in training, which is a strong predictor of well-being 95 and is associated with positive behaviors Additionally, provided the coach can deliver the content of the model in a positive manner the child should recognize the gains they are achieving e.

This will increase the likelihood of the child being able to persist in the face of adversity and to sustain continued interest in sport 4, The YPD model advocates the development of FMS from a young age, which are associated with physical and psychologic health benefits in children Furthermore, the progression provided throughout the YPD model will enable the children to experience continued mastery of new tasks throughout their developmental years.

Task mastery is associated with increased enjoyment, perceived competence, satisfaction, and beliefs that effort causes success 81,, Such positive experiences should also provide valuable and highly transferable life skills The continued and overlapping development of a number of fitness components in the YPD model should also provide the strength and conditioning coach with the ability to develop training programs containing a high degree of variation, something that has been suggested to be important in maintaining the interest of and promoting the well-being of child athletes It is important to realize that the success of any long-term development program will be dependent largely on the level of education and quality of instruction received by the athlete from the responsible coach Within the literature, cases of training-induced injury in children and adolescents are reported only in instances where a young athlete has been exposed to excessive, unfamiliar, and poorly prescribed training, which in both cases have led to exertional rhabdomyolysis and hospitalization 27, Research suggests that outside these isolated cases, most incidences of resistance training-related injuries tend to be accidental in nature, with the number of accidental injuries decreasing with age However, to minimize the chances of such isolated instances occurring, it is imperative that those coaches who actively coach young athletes possess the appropriate credentials.

First, a coach must hold a relevant strength and conditioning qualification e. Second, a coach must have a sound underpinning knowledge of pediatric exercise science, ideally at an undergraduate or postgraduate level. Finally, a coach should have a strong pedagogical background to ensure they have an appreciation of the different styles of communication and interaction that they will need to adopt with athletes, who might range from early prepubescent to late adolescent.

Satisfaction of these criteria will hopefully ensure that young athlete development models are delivered in a safe and effective manner, underpinned by appropriate individual program design inclusive of exercise selection and progressions, volume loads, rest, and recovery , realistic goal setting, and a coaching philosophy that is tailored toward the holistic development of the young athlete. The present article has provided a sound rationale for the YPD model. This approach to the development of young athletes appears to be more realistic in terms of acknowledging that most fitness components are trainable throughout childhood.

Central to the YPD model is that during prepubescence, strength, FMS, speed, and agility should be the main physical qualities targeted and that adaptive responses to the appropriate training methods will be neural in nature. Once the child reaches adolescence, additional components SSS, power, and hypertrophy become more important owing to the increased androgenic internal environment associated with this stage of development.

The need for individualization of the model should not be underestimated when dealing with athletes of different sex, maturity status, and training history.

Crucially, appropriately qualified personnel should always be responsible for the implementation of the YPD model, to ensure the holistic development of children and adolescents. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent.

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Advanced Search. Toggle navigation. Subscribe Register Login. Your Name: optional. Your Email:. Colleague's Email:. Separate multiple e-mails with a ;. Send a copy to your email. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try after some time. Back to Top Article Outline. Figure 1. Figure 2. Aagaard P. Training-induced changes in neural function.

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J Sports Sci 4: 4—20, Age changes in motor skills during childhood and adolescence. Talent development in adolescent team sports: A review. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 5: —, Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biol Psychol —, Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children's motor abilities. Scand J Med Sci Sports —, Children with low muscle strength are at an increased risk of fracture with exposure to exercise.

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INTRODUCTION

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Miyaguchi K, Demura S. Relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle eccentric maximum strength. Risk factors for lower extremity injury: A review of the literature. Br J Sports Med 13—29, When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sport-related injuries and enhance health in youth.

Curr Sports Med Rep —, Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview Most competitive sports require rapid whole-body movements in which athletes need to accelerate, decelerate, and change direction in response to game situations.

He lives in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Show More. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Developing Change of Direction Speed Chapter 2. Factors Determining Quickness Chapter 3. Age and Sex Considerations Chapter 5. Change of Direction Speed Drills Chapter 7. Quickness Drills Chapter 8. Agility and Quickness Program Design Chapter 9. Sport-Specific Agility and Quickness Training. Interviews Athletes and professionals working with athletes, including strength and conditioning coaches, personal trainers, and sport coaches. Average Review. Write a Review.

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