Principles of Tissue Engineering. Future Trends in Biotechnology. Jian-Jiang Zhong. Immobilized Cells: Basics and Applications. Tissue Engineering of the Peripheral Nerve. Stefano Geuna. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering. John Enderle. Chemistry of Bioconjugates. Ravin Narain. Microbial Biotechnology. Jayanta Kumar Patra. Microarray Bioprinting Technology. Moo-Yeal Lee. Functionalised Cardiovascular Stents. Gerard Wall. Optimization and Applicability of Bioprocesses.
Hemant J. Chitosan Based Biomaterials Volume 1. Jessica Amber Jennings. Signals and Systems for Bioengineers. John Semmlow. Bioinspired Materials for Medical Applications.
Probiotics in Agroecosystem. Vivek Kumar. Wound Healing Biomaterials - Volume 2. Roger Narayan. Metabolic Engineering for Bioactive Compounds. Adesh Kumar Saini. Circuits, Signals and Systems for Bioengineers. Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Ashok Pandey. Fluorescence-Based Biosensors. May C. William E. Regenerative Biology and Medicine. David L. Nanobiomaterials in Drug Delivery. Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu. Bioengineering for Surgery. Walid Farhat. Bioscience, Governance and Politics.
Injectable Biomaterials. Brent Vernon. Nanobiomaterials in Medical Imaging. Alexandru Grumezescu. Hans J Griesser. Microfluidics for Biologists. This approach to plasma sepn. Hemolysis-free blood plasma separation. Lab Chip , 14 , — , DOI: Hemolysis, involving the rupture of red blood cells RBCs and release of their contents into blood plasma, is a major issue of concern in clin. Hemolysis in vitro can occur as a result of errors in clin. Blood plasma sepn. However, inhibitors released from RBCs due to hemolysis during plasma sepn.
In particular, a general lack of simple and reliable blood plasma sepn. Here we present a hemolysis-free microfluidic blood plasma sepn. A membrane filter was positioned on top of a vertical up-flow channel filter-in-top configuration to reduce clogging of RBCs by gravity-assisted cells sedimentation.
With this device, sepd. This simple and robust on-chip blood plasma sepn. Diabetes Technol. Christiansen, Mark P. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Background: Persistent use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring CGM improves diabetes control in individuals with type 1 diabetes T1D and type 2 diabetes T2D. The primary endpoint was the mean abs. Results: Ninety participants received the CGM system. The overall MARD value against ref. Clarke Error Grid anal. Ninety-one percent of sensors were functional through day One related SAE 1. Eversense CGM System. Wearable non-invasive epidermal glucose sensors: A review.
Talanta , , — , DOI: The growing recent interest in wearable and mobile technologies has led to increased research efforts toward development of non-invasive glucose monitoring platforms. Continuous glucose monitoring addresses the limitations of finger-stick blood testing and provides the opportunity for optimal therapeutic interventions. This article reviews recent advances and challenges toward the development of non-invasive epidermal electrochem. Recent reports claim success in glucose monitoring in human subjects using skin-worn electrochem.
Such epidermal electrochem. The ability of such systems to monitor glucose non-invasively offers an attractive route toward advancing the management of diabetes and achieving improved glycemic control.
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However, realizing the potential diagnostic impact of these new epidermal sensing strategies would require extensive efforts toward addressing key technol. Tattoo-based potentiometric ion-selective sensors for epidermal pH monitoring. Analyst , , — , DOI: Bandodkar, Amay J. This article presents the fabrication and characterization of novel tattoo-based solid-contact ion-selective electrodes ISEs for non-invasive potentiometric monitoring of epidermal pH levels. The new fabrication approach combines com.
The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sensors exhibit rapid and sensitive response to a wide range of pH changes with no carry-over effects. Furthermore, the tattoo ISE sensors endure repetitive mech. The flexible and conformal nature of the tattoo sensors enable them to be mounted on nearly any exposed skin surface for real-time pH monitoring of the human perspiration, as illustrated from the response during a strenuous phys.
The resulting tattoo-based ISE sensors offer considerable promise as wearable potentiometric sensors suitable for diverse applications. A potentiometric tattoo sensor for monitoring ammonium in sweat. Guinovart, Tomas; Bandodkar, Amay J. The development and anal. The fabrication of this skin-worn sensor, which is based on a screen-printed design, incorporates all-solid-state potentiometric sensor technol. The resulting tattooed potentiometric sensor exhibits a working range between M to 0.
Testing under stringent mech. Since the levels of ammonium are related to the breakdown of proteins, the new wearable potentiometric tattoo sensor offers considerable promise for monitoring sport performance or detecting metabolic disorders in healthcare. Such combination of the epidermal integration, screen-printed technol. Epidermal tattoo potentiometric sodium sensors with wireless signal transduction for continuous non-invasive sweat monitoring. This article describes the fabrication, characterization and application of an epidermal temporary-transfer tattoo-based potentiometric sensor, coupled with a miniaturized wearable wireless transceiver, for real-time monitoring of sodium in the human perspiration.
Sodium excreted during perspiration is an excellent marker for electrolyte imbalance and provides valuable information regarding an individual's phys. The realization of the new skin-worn non-invasive tattoo-like sensing device has been realized by amalgamating several state-of-the-art thick film, laser printing, solid-state potentiometry, fluidics and wireless technologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sodium sensor displays a rapid near-Nernstian response with negligible carryover effects, and good resiliency against various mech.
On-body testing of the tattoo sensor coupled to a wireless transceiver during exercise activity demonstrated its ability to continuously monitor sweat sodium dynamics. The real-time sweat sodium concn. The favorable anal. Homeostasis of ionized calcium in biofluids is crit. Measurement of ionized calcium for clin. Here, the authors demonstrate a wearable electrochem. This platform enables real-time quant.
The authors' results show that the wearable sensors have high repeatability and selectivity to the target ions. Real-time on-body assessment of sweat is also performed, and the authors' results indicate that calcium concn. This platform can be used in noninvasive continuous anal. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform. National Academy of Sciences.
Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and mol. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large vol. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent soln. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an elec.
The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can ext. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochem. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time anal. To demonstrate the clin.
With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood.
Our soln. Eyeglasses based wireless electrolyte and metabolite sensor platform. Lab Chip , 17 , — , DOI: Sempionatto, Juliane R. The demand for wearable sensors has grown rapidly in recent years, with increasing attention being given to epidermal chem. Here, we present the first example of a fully integrated eyeglasses wireless multiplexed chem.
The new concept has been realized by integrating an amperometric lactate biosensor and a potentiometric potassium ion-selective electrode into the two nose-bridge pads of the glasses and interfacing them with a wireless electronic backbone placed on the glasses' arms. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of sweat lactate and potassium levels with no apparent cross-talk is demonstrated along with wireless signal transduction. The electrochem. The electronic backbone on the arms of the glasses' frame offers control of the amperometric and potentiometric transducers and enables Bluetooth wireless data transmission to the host device.
The new eyeglasses system offers an interchangeable-sensor feature in connection with a variety of different nose-bridge amperometric and potentiometric sensor stickers. For example, the lactate bridge-pad sensor was replaced with a glucose one to offer convenient monitoring of sweat glucose.
Such a fully integrated wireless "Lab-on-a-Glass" multiplexed biosensor platform can be readily expanded for the simultaneous monitoring of addnl. Integrated sudomotor axon reflex sweat stimulation for continuous sweat analyte analysis with individuals at rest. Eccrine sweat has rapidly emerged as a non-invasive, ergonomic, and rich source of chem. However, beyond active perspirers athletes, workers, etc.
Reported here is integration of sudomotor axon reflex sweat stimulation for continuous wearable sweat analyte anal. This integration approach is uniquely compatible with sensors which consume the analyte enzymic or sensors which equilibrate with analyte concns. In vivo validation is performed using iontophoretic delivery of carbachol with ion-selective and impedance sensors for sweat anal. Carbachol has shown prolonged sweat stimulation in directly stimulated regions for five hours or longer.
This work represents a significant leap forward in sweat sensing technol. Flexible plastic, paper and textile lab-on-a chip platforms for electrochemical biosensing. Lab Chip , 18 , — , DOI: Flexible biosensors represent an increasingly important and rapidly developing field of research. Flexible materials offer several advantages as supports of biosensing platforms in terms of flexibility, wt. On the other hand, electrochem.
The present paper reviews the field of integrated electrochem. The vast majority of electrochem. Among these, wearable devices are perhaps the ones that most vividly demonstrate the utility of the concept of flexible biosensors while diagnostic cards represent the state-of-the art in terms of integration and functionality. Another important type of flexible biosensors utilize paper as a functional support material enabling the fabrication of low-cost and disposable paper-based devices operating on the lateral flow, drop-casting or folding origami principles.
Finally, textile-based biosensors are beginning to emerge enabling real-time measurements in the working environment or in wound care applications. This review is timely due to the significant advances that have taken place over the last few years in the area of LOC biosensors and aims to direct the readers to emerging trends in this field. Adhesive RFID sensor patch for monitoring of sweat electrolytes. IEEE Trans. Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification RFID sensor bandage patch is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat.
Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.
Epidermal microfluidic electrochemical detection system: Enhanced sweat sampling and metabolite detection. Despite tremendous recent efforts, noninvasive sweat monitoring is still far from delivering its early anal. Here, the authors describe a flexible epidermal microfluidic detection platform fabricated through hybridization of lithog. This soft, skin-mounted device judiciously merges lab-on-a-chip and electrochem. Modeling of the device design and sweat flow conditions allowed optimization of the sampling process and the microchannel layout for achieving attractive fluid dynamics and rapid filling of the detection reservoir within 8 min from starting exercise.
The wearable microdevice thus enabled efficient natural sweat pumping to the electrochem. The fabricated device can be easily mounted on the epidermis without hindrance to the wearer and displays resiliency against continuous mech. Amperometric biosensing of lactate and glucose from the rapidly generated sweat, using the corresponding immobilized oxidase enzymes, was wirelessly monitored during cycling activity of different healthy subjects.
This ability to monitor sweat glucose levels introduces new possibilities for effective diabetes management, while similar lactate monitoring paves the way for new wearable fitness applications. The new epidermal microfluidic electrochem. Noninvasive alcohol monitoring using a wearable tattoo-based iontophoretic-biosensing system. In this paper we demonstrate a wearable tattoo-based alc. The skin-worn alc. The wearable prototype enables the transdermal delivery of the pilocarpine drug to induce sweat via iontophoresis and amperometric detection of ethanol in the generated sweat using the alc.
The new skin-compliant biosensor displays a highly selective and sensitive response to ethanol. On-body results with human subjects show distinct differences in the current response before and after alc. The new wireless epidermal iontophoretic-biosensing system offers considerable promise for noninvasive monitoring of alc. Electrochemical tattoo biosensors for real-time noninvasive lactate monitoring in human perspiration. Jia, Wenzhao; Bandodkar, Amay J.
The present work describes the first example of real-time noninvasive lactate sensing in human perspiration during exercise events using a flexible printed temporary-transfer tattoo electrochem. The new skin-worn enzymic biosensor exhibits chem. The device was applied successfully to human subjects for real-time continuous monitoring of sweat lactate dynamics during prolonged cycling exercise.
The resulting temporal lactate profiles reflect changes in the prodn. Such skin-worn metabolite biosensors could lead to useful insights into phys. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis. Nature , , — , DOI: Nature Publishing Group. Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiol. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate anal.
Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is crit. Here we present a mech. Our work bridges the technol. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their resp. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor phys. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiol. Wearable microsensor array for multiplexed heavy metal monitoring of body fluids.
Gao, Wei; Nyein, Hnin Y. A flexible and wearable microsensor array is described for simultaneous multiplexed monitoring of heavy metals in human body fluids. Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg ions are chosen as target analytes for detection via electrochem. The oxidn. High selectivity, repeatability, and flexibility of the sensor arrays are presented.
Human sweat and urine samples are collected for heavy metal anal. Real-time on-body evaluation of heavy metal e.
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This platform is anticipated to provide insightful information about an individual's health state such as heavy metal exposure and aid the related clin. Wearable temporary tattoo sensor for real-time trace metal monitoring in human sweat. Kim, Jayoung; de Araujo, William R. A wearable electrochem. The Zn temporary tattoo sensor withstands repeated mech.
Such a non-invasive stripping-voltammetric detection could be readily expanded to epidermal measurements of other relevant heavy metals. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. American Association for the Advancement of Science. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery-powered electrochem.
The designed s. ETCs drive intravascular blood glucose out of the vessel and transport it to the skin surface. We conducted in vivo human clin. The system opens up new prospects for clin. Non-invasive, transdermal, path-selective and specific glucose monitoring via a graphene-based platform. Lipani, Luca; Dupont, Bertrand G. Nature Research. Currently, there is no available needle-free approach for diabetics to monitor glucose levels in the interstitial fluid. Here, we report a path-selective, non-invasive, transdermal glucose monitoring system based on a miniaturized pixel array platform realized either by graphene-based thin-film technol.
The system samples glucose from the interstitial fluid via electroosmotic extn. A proof of principle using mammalian skin ex vivo is demonstrated for specific and 'quantized' glucose extn. Furthermore, the quantification of follicular and non-follicular glucose extn.
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In vivo continuous monitoring of interstitial fluid-borne glucose with the pixel array was able to track blood sugar in healthy human subjects. This approach paves the way to clin. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Owing to its high carrier mobility, cond. However, the low d.
Here, we show that graphene doped with gold and combined with a gold mesh has improved electrochem. The stretchable device features a serpentine bilayer of gold mesh and gold-doped graphene that forms an efficient electrochem. The patch consists of a heater, temp. We show that the patch can be thermally actuated to deliver Metformin and reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice.
Skin-interfaced systems for sweat collection and analytics. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat. Thin, soft, skin-mounted microfluidic networks with capillary bursting valves for chrono-sampling of sweat. Healthcare Mater.
Super-absorbent polymer valves and colorimetric chemistries for time-sequenced discrete sampling and chloride analysis of sweat via skin-mounted soft microfluidics. Small , 14 , , DOI: Stretchable, wireless sensors and functional substrates for epidermal characterization of sweat. Small , 10 , — , DOI: This paper introduces materials and architectures for ultrathin, stretchable wireless sensors that mount on functional elastomeric substrates for epidermal anal. Measurement of the vol.
Here, inductively coupled sensors consisting of LC resonators with capacitive electrodes show systematic responses to sweat collected in microporous substrates. Interrogation occurs through external coils placed in phys. The substrates allow spontaneous sweat collection through capillary forces, without the need for complex microfluidic handling systems. Furthermore, colorimetric measurement modes are possible in the same system by introducing indicator compds. The complete devices offer Young's moduli that are similar to skin, thus allowing highly effective and reliable skin integration without external fixtures.
Colorimetric responses to pH and concns. Similar materials and device designs can be used in monitoring other body fluids. A paper-based skin patch for the diagnostic screening of cystic fibrosis. A thin and flexible paper-based skin patch was developed for the diagnostic screening of cystic fibrosis. It utilized a unique combination of both anion exchange and pH test papers to enable the quant. Smart bandage with wireless connectivity for uric acid biosensing as an indicator of wound status. Advanced wound care technologies need to evolve in response to the growing burden of chronic wounds on national healthcare budgets and the debilitating impact chronic wounds have on patient quality of life.
We describe here a new type of smart bandage for detn. Immobilized uricase, paired with a printed catalytic Prussian blue transducer, facilitates chronoamperometric detection of uric acid at a low working potential. The smart bandage biosensor interfaces with a custom designed wearable potentiostat that provides on-demand wireless data transfer of UA status to a computer, tablet, or Smartphone by radio frequency identification RFID or near-field communication NFC.
The anal. Application of these bandages will provide insight into wound status and may reduce the frequency at which dressings are changed, allowing for healthcare cost savings and a redn. Embroidered electrochemical sensors on gauze for rapid quantification of wound biomarkers. These attributes also make electrochem.
Towards this end, we have developed a robust electrochem. Continuous sensing of uric acid was also performed using this biosensor which reveals that it can generate consistent and accurate measurements for up to 7 h. Simultaneous detection of pH value and glucose concentrations for wound monitoring applications. Jankowska, D. Aging population and longer life expectancy are the main reasons for an increasing no.
Although the interest in wound care increases continuously, wound management still remains a challenge mainly due to the higher occurrence of chronic wounds, which require intensive care and const. Here, we demonstrate a fluorescent sensing system to monitor the wound status and to distinguish between an autonomously healing and a chronic wound at an early stage. The system allows monitoring two of the most relevant fluctuating wound parameters during the healing process which are pH and glucose concn. A fluorescent pH indicator dye, carboxynaphthofluorescein, and a metabolite-sensing enzymic system, based on glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase, were immobilized on a biocompatible polysaccharide matrix to develop a functional hydrogel coating for wound monitoring.
The changes in metabolite and enzyme concn. Low cost inkjet printed smart bandage for wireless monitoring of chronic wounds. Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and their treatment is challenging as the early signs indicating their development are subtle. Infection and frequent bleeding are indicators of chronic wound development.
In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a std. The smart bandage comprises a disposable part which has the inkjet printed sensors and a reusable part constituting the wireless electronics. This work is an important step towards futuristic wearable sensors for remote health care applications.
Mouthguard biosensor with telemetry system for monitoring of saliva glucose: A novel cavitas sensor. We develop detachable "Cavitas sensors" to apply to the human oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. Electrodes are formed on the polyethylene terephthalate glycol PETG surface of the mouthguard. The Pt working electrode is coated with a glucose oxidase GOD membrane.
The biosensor seamlessly is integrated with a glucose sensor and a wireless measurement system. When investigating in-vitro performance, the biosensor exhibits a robust relationship between output current and glucose concn. We demonstrate the ability of the sensor and wireless communication module to monitor saliva glucose in a phantom jaw imitating the structure of the human oral cavity.
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Stable and long-term real-time monitoring exceeding 5 h with the telemetry system is achieved. The mouthguard biosensor will be useful as a novel method for real-time non-invasive saliva glucose monitoring for better management of dental patients. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics. This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid SUA levels. The enzyme uricase -modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy BLE transceiver.
Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to std. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concn. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications.
Non-invasive mouthguard biosensor for continuous salivary monitoring of metabolites. The present work describes the first example of a wearable salivary metabolite biosensor based on the integration of a printable enzymic electrode on a mouthguard. The new mouthguard enzymic biosensor, based on an immobilized lactate oxidase and a low potential detection of the peroxide product, exhibits high sensitivity, selectivity and stability using whole human saliva samples.
Such non-invasive mouthguard metabolite biosensors could tender useful real-time information regarding a wearer's health, performance and stress level, and thus hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical and fitness applications. Graphene-based wireless bacteria detection on tooth enamel. Nature communications , 3 , ISSN:.
Direct interfacing of nanosensors onto biomaterials could impact health quality monitoring and adaptive threat detection. Graphene is capable of highly sensitive analyte detection due to its nanoscale nature. Here we show that graphene can be printed onto water-soluble silk. This in turn permits intimate biotransfer of graphene nanosensors onto biomaterials, including tooth enamel. The result is a fully biointerfaced sensing platform, which can be tuned to detect target analytes. For example, via self-assembly of antimicrobial peptides onto graphene, we show bioselective detection of bacteria at single-cell levels.
Incorporation of a resonant coil eliminates the need for onboard power and external connections. Combining these elements yields two-tiered interfacing of peptide-graphene nanosensors with biomaterials. In particular, we demonstrate integration onto a tooth for remote monitoring of respiration and bacteria detection in saliva. Overall, this strategy of interfacing graphene nanosensors with biomaterials represents a versatile approach for ubiquitous detection of biochemical targets.
Ultrafast graphene oxide humidity sensors. Sensors allow an electronic device to become a gateway between the digital and phys. Graphene oxide can be exploited in humidity and temp. This opens the door to various applications, such as touchless user interfaces, which we demonstrate with a 'whistling' recognition anal. Paper-based electrical respiration sensor. Current methods of monitoring breathing require cumbersome, inconvenient, and often expensive devices; this requirement sets practical limitations on the frequency and duration of measurements.
This article describes a paper-based moisture sensor that uses the hygroscopic character of paper i. The changing level of humidity that occurs in a cycle causes a corresponding change in the ionic cond. By combining the paper sensor with conventional electronics, data concerning respiration can be transmitted to a nearby smartphone or tablet computer for post-processing, and subsequently to a cloud server.
This means of sensing provides a new, practical method of recording and analyzing patterns of breathing. A contact lens with embedded sensor for monitoring tear glucose level. Yao, Huanfen; Shum, Angela J. We report the design, construction, and testing of a contact lens with an integrated amperometric glucose sensor, proposing the possibility of in situ human health monitoring simply by wearing a contact lens.
The glucose sensor was constructed by creating microstructures on a polymer substrate, which was subsequently shaped into a contact lens. Titania sol-gel film was applied to immobilize glucose oxidase, and Nafion was used to decrease several potential interferences ascorbic acid, lactate, and urea present in the tear film. It shows good linearity for the typical range of glucose concns. The sensor can attain a min. Wearable smart sensor systems integrated on soft contact lenses for wireless ocular diagnostics. Nature communications , 8 , ISSN:.
Wearable contact lenses which can monitor physiological parameters have attracted substantial interests due to the capability of direct detection of biomarkers contained in body fluids. However, previously reported contact lens sensors can only monitor a single analyte at a time. Furthermore, such ocular contact lenses generally obstruct the field of vision of the subject. Here, we developed a multifunctional contact lens sensor that alleviates some of these limitations since it was developed on an actual ocular contact lens.
It was also designed to monitor glucose within tears, as well as intraocular pressure using the resistance and capacitance of the electronic device. Furthermore, in-vivo and in-vitro tests using a live rabbit and bovine eyeball demonstrated its reliable operation. Our developed contact lens sensor can measure the glucose level in tear fluid and intraocular pressure simultaneously but yet independently based on different electrical responses.
A contact lens with an integrated lactate sensor. Actuators, B , , — , DOI: The tear film is a valuable diagnostic fluid for a continuous, minimally invasive surveillance of health conditions in a patient. We developed an electronic enzymic L-lactate sensor on a polymer substrate molded into contact lens shape for potential in situ monitoring of L-lactate levels in tear fluid. The platinum sensing structures were functionalized by cross-linkage of lactate oxidase with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin, and coated with medical grade polyurethane. Different approaches for the suppression of interfering species present in the tear film were evaluated.
The sensors show a quick response time of 35 s, an av. A dual sensor design was found appropriate for the suppression of interfering signals. The sensors are functional at temps. IEEE J. Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system. The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'.
The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system GPS modules. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented.
Performance evaluation of sensing fabrics for monitoring physiological and biomechanical variables. In the last few years, the smart textile area has become increasingly widespread, leading to developments in new wearable sensing systems. Truly wearable instrumented garments capable of recording behavioral and vital signals are crucial for several fields of application.
Here we report on results of a careful characterization of the performance of innovative fabric sensors and electrodes able to acquire vital biomechanical and physiological signals, respectively. The sensing function of the fabric sensors relies upon newly developed strain sensors, based on rubber-carbon-coated threads, and mainly depends on the weaving topology, and the composition and deposition process of the conducting rubber-carbon mixture. Fabric sensors are used to acquire the respitrace RT and movement sensors MS. Sensing features of electrodes, instead rely upon metal-based conductive threads, which are instrumental in detecting bioelectrical signals, such as electrocardiogram ECG and electromyogram EMG.
Fabric sensors have been tested during some specific tasks of breathing and movement activity, and results have been compared with the responses of a commercial piezoelectric sensor and an electrogoniometer, respectively. The performance of fabric electrodes has been investigated and compared with standard clinical electrodes. Wearable contactless respiration sensor based on multi-material fibers integrated into textile.
Sensors , 17 , , DOI: Human stress monitoring through an organic cotton-fiber biosensor. B , 2 , — , DOI: Selective detection of bioanalytes in physiol. To be really useful in everyday life a sensing system needs to be handy, non-invasive, easy to read and possibly wearable.
Only a sensor that satisfies these requirements could be eligible for applications in healthcare and physiol. Herein an org. The biosensor has been used for real-time detection of adrenaline, selectively compared to the saline content in human physiol. The sensing mechanism is based on the oxidn.
Two independent org. Measurements performed in real-time mode show the complete independence of adrenaline detection from NaCl and, hence, guarantee the simultaneous monitoring of both concns. The authors' results confirm that the oxidn. The cotton-based biosensor shows the possibility of monitoring human performances hydration and stress in situ and using a non-invasive approach, opening new unexplored opportunities in healthcare, fitness and work safety. Wearable sensors: modalities, challenges, and prospects.
Heikenfeld, J. Wearable sensors have recently seen a large increase in both research and commercialization. However, success in wearable sensors has been a mix of both progress and setbacks. Most of com. This adaptation has involved innovations in how to miniaturize sensing technologies, how to make them conformal and flexible, and in the development of companion software that increases the value of the measured data. However, chem. There have also been significant challenges in making significant fundamental improvements to existing mech.
Many of these challenges can be understood by appreciating the body's surface skin as more of an information barrier than as an information source. With a deeper understanding of the fundamental challenges faced for wearable sensors and of the state-of-the-art for wearable sensor technol. Recent developments in paper-based microfluidic devices.
Cate, David M. Paper is a centuries old substrate for carrying out chem. The application of paper as a platform for microfluidics, however, was only introduced to the scientific community less than ten years ago and has become a major new field of research. Microfluidic paper-based anal. This review covers developments made over the last two years in this rapidly expanding field. The authors first discuss basic processes affecting water wetting and flow from a fundamental predictive basis. The authors then discuss developments in fabrication methods and device functionality before covering detection methods.
Finally, the authors summarize papers addressing new applications of paper-based anal. Sensing approaches on paper-based devices: a review. Paper has been present in the world of anal. We can easily list some of the countless advantages of this simple cellulosic substrate, including mech. Those characteristics make paper a first-choice substrate for disposable sensors and integrated sensing platforms. Nowadays, numerous examples of paper-based sensors are being presented in the literature.
This review describes some of the most prominent examples classifying them by type of detection: optical colorimetric, fluorescence, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and transmittance methods and electrochem. We take a closer look at recent advances in immunoassays fabricated on paper, excluding simple lateral flow tests assembled on nitrocellulose.
This review also summarizes the main advantages and disadvantages of the use of paper as a substrate for sensors, as well as its impact on their performance and application, presents a short history of paper in anal. Paper-based microfluidic point-of-care diagnostic devices. Dipstick and lateral-flow formats have dominated rapid diagnostics over the last three decades. These formats gained popularity in the consumer markets due to their compactness, portability and facile interpretation without external instrumentation.
However, lack of quantitation in measurements has challenged the demand of existing assay formats in consumer markets. Recently, paper-based microfluidics has emerged as a multiplexable point-of-care platform which might transcend the capabilities of existing assays in resource-limited settings. However, paper-based microfluidics can enable fluid handling and quant.
Currently, in its early development stages, paper-based microfluidics is considered a low-cost, lightwt. The aim of this review is to discuss: 1 fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices, 2 functionalization of microfluidic components to increase the capabilities and the performance, 3 introduction of existing detection techniques to the paper platform and 4 exploration of extg.
The factors which limit paper-based microfluidic devices to become real world products and future directions are also identified. Electrochemistry on paper-based analytical devices: A review. Even though they were introduced less than a decade ago, electrochem. EPADs combine the advantages of microfluidic paper-based devices low cost, ease of use, equipment free pumping, etc. As a result, ePADs provide simplicity, portability, reproducibility, low cost and high selectivity and sensitivity for anal.
Herein, recent advances in ePAD development and application are reviewed, focusing on electrode fabrication techniques and examples of applications specially focused on environmental monitoring, biol. Finally, a summary and prospective directions for ePAD research are also provided. Lateral-flow technology: From visual to instrumental. TrAC, Trends Anal. Lateral-flow tests were first launched com. The simplicity of the visual readout delivered by the basic lateral-flow format proved to be a very popular. However, the recent apparently unstoppable trend towards portable and wearable technol.
In this review, we chart the inevitable evolution of the visually-read lateral-flow strip to more advanced instrumented versions and consider the future of this very flexible approach to delivering simple affinity assays. We examine recent labeling strategies, the relative merits of optical and electrochem.
Acta , , 1 — 22 , DOI: Paper-based devices are a leading alternative among the main anal. Colorimetric readouts are the most common method of detection in these microfluidic devices, enabling qual. There is a multitude of ways to obtain a colorimetric output in such devices, including nanoparticles, dyes, redox and pH indicators, and each has unique drawbacks and benefits.
There are also multiple variables that impact the anal. Here, the authors present a crit. Recent developments in computer vision-based analytical chemistry: A tutorial review. Acta , , 23 — 56 , DOI: This is due to its several significant advantages, such as simplicity of use, and the fact that it is easily combinable with portable and widely distributed imaging devices, resulting in friendly anal. This tutorial review covers computer vision-based anal. CVAC procedures and systems from to , a period of time when The background regarding color spaces and recent anal. Also, issues regarding images, such as the influence of illuminants, and the most relevant techniques for processing and analyzing digital images are addressed.
Some of the most relevant applications are then detailed, highlighting their main characteristics. Finally, the authors' opinion about future perspectives is discussed. A simple and smart telemedicine device for developing regions: a pocket-sized colorimetric reader.
Lab Chip , 11 , — , DOI: We have proposed a novel mobile healthcare platform, combining a pocket-sized colorimetric reader The reader includes a novel colorimetric multi-detection module, which consists of three-chromatic light-emitting diodes, silicon photodiodes and a novel poly methylmethacrylate PMMA optical splitter. We employed data reading methods using conversions of the signal data red, blue, and green to the hue H color map or the Y model data, and used a curve-fitting method for the quantification. The reader is battery-powered, inexpensive, light-wt.
And, it was applied to detection of a thousand of human urine samples and demonstrated reliable quantification of urinary glucose and protein.
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The features can be used by unskilled people on-site to transfer the analyzed data to experts off-site. A smartphone algorithm with inter-phone repeatability for the analysis of colorimetric tests. Yetisen, Ali K. A smartphone application algorithm with inter-phone repeatability was developed for both Android and iOS operating systems. The app transformed the smartphone into a reader to quantify com. The results showed linear responses in the ranges of 5. Smartphone based health accessory for colorimetric detection of biomarkers in sweat and saliva. The mobile health market is rapidly expanding and portable diagnostics tools offer an opportunity to decrease costs and increase the availability of healthcare.
Here we present a smartphone based accessory and method for the rapid colorimetric detection of pH in sweat and saliva. Sweat pH can be correlated to sodium concn. Salivary pH below a crit. We conduct a no. Here the authors report a study on using a low-cost bioactive paper device to perform ABO and rhesus RhD blood typing tests and obtain test results from the paper in writing. Paper text patterns are designed and printed to allow interactions between grouping antibodies and red blood cells. Composite text patterns consisting of the bioactive and non-bioactive sections are used to form the letters and symbols for the final display of the testing report.
This paper-based blood typing device rapidly reports patient's blood type in unambiguous written text. Simple paper-based test for measuring blood hemoglobin concentration in resource-limited settings. Yang, Xiaoxi; Piety, Nathaniel Z. The measurement of Hb concn. Devices currently available to physicians and clin. The unavailability of accurate but inexpensive diagnostic tools often precludes proper diagnosis of anemia in low-income developing countries. Therefore, we developed a simple paper-based assay for measuring [Hb].
The resulting blood stain was digitized with a portable scanner and analyzed. The mean color intensity of the blood stain was used to quantify [Hb]. We compared the performance of the paper-based Hb assay with a hematol. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the paper-based Hb assay. This simple, low-cost test should be useful for diagnosing anemia in resource-limited settings, particularly in the context of care for malaria, HIV, and sickle cell disease patients in sub-Saharan Africa.
Diagnosis of lung cancer by the analysis of exhaled breath with a colorimetric sensor array. Thorax , 62 , — , DOI: Thorax , 62 7 , ISSN: New sensor systems that detect patterns of VOCs have been developed. One of these sensor systems, a colorimetric sensor array, has 36 spots composed of different chemically sensitive compounds impregnated on a disposable cartridge.
The colours of these spots change based on the chemicals with which they come into contact. In this proof of principle study, the ability of this sensor system to detect a pattern of VOCs unique to lung cancer is assessed. METHODS: Individuals with lung cancer, those with other lung diseases and healthy controls performed tidal breathing of room air for 12 min while exhaling into a device designed to draw their breath across a colorimetric sensor array. The colour changes that occurred for each individual were converted into a numerical vector. The vectors were analysed statistically, using a random forests technique, to determine whether lung cancer could be predicted from the responses of the sensor.
RESULTS: individuals participated in the study: 49 with non-small cell lung cancer, 18 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 15 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 20 with pulmonary arterial hypertension 20 with sarcoidosis and 21 controls. Rapid quantification of trimethylamine. Sensitive detection of trimethylamine both in aq. Distinctive color change patterns provide facile discrimination over a wide range of concns.
The sensor array shows good reversibility after multiple uses and is able to cleanly discriminate trimethylamine from similar amine odorants. Portable sensing of trimethylamine vapors at ppb concns. Application of the sensor array in detecting mouth and skin odor as a potential tool for portable diagnosis of trimethylaminuria is also illustrated. Exhaled breath analysis with a colorimetric sensor array for the identification and characterization of lung cancer. Breath biosignature-based classification of homogeneous subgroups of lung cancer may be more accurate than a global breath signature.
Combining breath biosignatures with clinical risk factors may improve the accuracy of the signature. Logistic prediction models were developed and statistically validated based on the color changes of the sensor. Age, sex, smoking history, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were incorporated in the prediction models. RESULTS: The validated prediction model of the combined breath and clinical biosignature was moderately accurate at distinguishing lung cancer from control subjects C-statistic 0. The accuracy improved when the model focused on only one histology C-statistic 0.
Individuals with different histologies could be accurately distinguished from one another C-statistic 0. Moderate accuracies were noted for validated breath biosignatures of stage and survival C-statistic 0. The accuracy of breath biosignatures can be optimized by evaluating specific histologies and incorporating clinical risk factors. Barcode-like paper sensor for smartphone diagnostics: An application of blood typing. This study introduced a barcode-like design into a paper-based blood typing device by integrating with smartphone-based technol.
The concept of presenting a paper-based blood typing assay in a barcode-like pattern significantly enhanced the adaptability of the assay to the smartphone technol. The fabrication of this device involved the use of a printing technique to define hydrophilic bar channels which were, resp. These channels were then used to perform blood typing assays by introducing a blood sample.
Blood type can be visually identified from eluting lengths in bar channels. A smartphone-based anal. The proposed paper-based blood typing device is rapidly read by smartphones and easy for the user to operate. We envisage that the adaptation of paper-based devices to the widely accepted smartphone technol. Measurement of the hematocrit using paper-based microfluidic devices. Berry, Samuel B. The quantification of blood cells provides crit. Sophisticated anal. To address these practical challenges, paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as a platform to develop diagnostic assays specifically for use at the point-of-care.
To date, paper-based microfluidic devices have been used broadly in diagnostic assays that apply immunoassay, clin. In this communication, we demonstrate a paper-based microfluidic device that enables the controlled transport of red blood cells RBCs and the measurement of the hematocrit-the ratio of RBC packed cell vol.