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These developments are linked to hormonal changes but are not always dependent on them. Developments are taking place in regions of the brain, such as the limbic system, that are responsible for pleasure seeking and reward processing, emotional responses and sleep regulation. At the same time, changes are taking place in the pre-frontal cortex, the area responsible for what are called executive functions: decision-making, organization, impulse control and planning for the future.

The changes in the pre-frontal cortex occur later in adolescence than the limbic system changes. Linked to the hormonal and neurodevelopmental changes that are taking place are psychosocial and emotional changes and increasing cognitive and intellectual capacities. Over the course of the second decade, adolescents develop stronger reasoning skills, logical and moral thinking, and become more capable of abstract thinking and making rational judgements. These external influences, which differ among cultures and societies, include social values and norms and the changing roles, responsibilities, relationships and expectations of this period of life.

In many ways adolescent development drives the changes in the disease burden between childhood to adulthood—for example, the increase with age in sexual and reproductive health problems, mental illness and injuries. The appearance of certain health problems in adolescence, including substance use disorders, mental disorders and injuries, likely reflects both the biological changes of puberty and the social context in which young people are growing up. Other conditions, such as the increased incidence of certain infectious diseases, for example, schistosomiasis, may simply result from the daily activities of adolescents during this period of their lives.

Many of the health-related behaviours that arise during adolescence have implications for both present and future health and development.

The adolescent brain: Beyond raging hormones

For example, the question:. Boys responded star athlete over 40 percent of the time, and brilliant student less than 30 percent of the time.

Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health

This despite the fact that the boy is asked how he would like to be remembered in school , an institution explicitly designed to train students, not athletes. It is clear from all these data that the interests of teenagers are not focused around studies, and that scholastic achievement is at most of minor importance in giving status or prestige to an adolescent in the eyes of other adolescents.


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This is perhaps to be expected in some areas, where parents place little emphasis on education. Yet the most striking result from these questions was the fact that the values current in the well-to-do suburban school … were no more oriented to scholastic success than those in the small-town school or the working-class school.

Social constraints

The same process which occurs among prisoners in a jail and among workers in a factory is found among students in a school. The institution is different, but the demands are there, and the students develop a collective response to these demands. This response takes a similar form to that of workers in industry —holding down effort to a level which can be maintained by all. Grades are almost completely relative, in effect ranking students relative to others in their class.

Thus extra achievement by one student not only raises his position, but in effect lowers the position of others.

Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition.

He points out that there is a difference in the outcomes if the competition is organized through groups rather than between individuals. One obvious solution is to substitute interscholastic and intramural competition in scholastic matters for the interpersonal competition for grades which presently exists.

The Adolescents - I Love You

Starting a Conversation 3. Having a Conversation 4.

Asking a Question 5. Saying Thank You 6.

Communicating with the Adolescent

Introducing Yourself 7. Introducing Other People 8. Asking for Help Joining In Giving Instructions Following Instructions Apologizing Knowing Your Feelings Expressing Your Feelings Understanding the Feelings of Others Expressing Affection Dealing with Fear Asking Permission Sharing Something Helping Others Negotiating Using Self-Control Standing Up for Your Rights Responding to Teasing Avoiding Trouble with Others Making a Complaint Answering a Complaint Being a Good Sport